Monday, March 30, 2009

Indonesia About Year 1501 - 1600

Indonesia About Year 1505

Trenggono, grandson of Raden Patah, becomes prince of Demak.

Local powers on Java around 1500 included:

Demak which was the chief power in Java in the early 1500s. Nearby Jepara participated in many naval expeditions.

Surabaya. Some powers that later came under Surabaya include Gresik, home of Sunan Giri, and Pasuruan.

Banten, which was a Hindu power under Pajajaran until the arrival of Sunan Gunungjati.

Indonesia About Year 1509

Portuguese visit Melaka for the first time.

The goal of the Portuguese was to take control of trade. Later trade empires would include Gowa, Banten, and the Dutch VOC or East India Company. The original goal of all of them was money before political power, but they did not always stick to their original goal.

Indonesia About Year 1511

April Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Melaka.

August 10 Albuquerque's forces take Melaka.

Sultan of Melaka escapes to Riau.

Portuguese in Melaka destroy a "Javanese" fleet. Their ship sinks with treasure on way back to Goa.

December Albuquerque sends three ships under da Breu from Melaka to explore eastwards.

The gate to the Portuguese fortress at Melaka. Melaka was the center of the Portuguese trade empire in the Indies in the 1500s. The Portuguese in Melaka were attacked every few years by the Sultans of Malaya and Sumatra, especially Aceh and Johore. Sometimes alliances would be formed with powers on Java to attack the Portuguese.

Indonesia About Year 1512

Da Breu expedition travels from Melaka to Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru and Banda. Two ships are wrecked at Banda. Da Breu returns to Melaka; Francisco Serrão repairs ship and continues to Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. Serrão offers support to Ternate in a dispute with Tidore--his men build a Portuguese post at Ternate.
Serrão wrote to Magellan at this time (who formerly served under Albuquerque, but pledged allegiance to Spain after being refused a promotion) telling Magellan about the riches of the Indies.

Indonesia About Year 1513

A force from Jepara and Palembang attacks the Portuguese in Melaka, but is repulsed.

March Portuguese send an envoy to King of Pajajaran. Portuguese are allowed to build a fort at Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta).

Portuguese make contact with King Udara, son of Girindrawardhana and ruler over the remnant of Majapahit.

Portuguese build factories at Ternate and Bacan.

Udara attacks Demak with the help of the King of Klungkung on Bali. Majapahit forces are driven back, but Sunan Ngudung falls in battle. Many more supporters of Majapahit flee to Bali.

Powers on Sumatra included:

Aceh, the first major Islamic power in what is now Indonesia. It was founded by local rulers of Lamuri, around today's Banda Aceh, after they were expelled from Pedir (around today's Sigli). After the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese, many Muslim merchants moved their business operations to Aceh, and this caused Aceh to grow as a trading power.

Palembang where sultans still ruled long after the fall of Srivijaya.

On Kalimantan, Sukadana was a thriving city founded by refugees from the fall of Majapahit.

Indonesia About Year 1514

Ali Mughayat Syah is first Sultan of Aceh. On Bali the King of Gelgel (near today's Klungkung) was the most powerful king in the 1500s.

Indonesia About Year 1515

First Portuguese visit Timor.

Indonesia About Year 1518

Sultan Mahmud of Melaka takes power at Johore.

Raden Patah passes away; Yunus becomes Sultan of Demak.

The Sultanate of Johore was attacked by the Portuguese all through the 1520s.

Indonesia About Year 1520

Aceh begins taking northeast coast of Sumatra.

Balinese attack on Lombok.

Portuguese traders begin visiting Flores and Solor.

Banjar on Kalimantan converts to Islam.

Indonesia About Year 1521

Yunus leads fleet from Demak and Cirebon against the Portuguese in Melaka. Yunus is killed in battle. Trenggono becomes Sultan of Demak.

Portuguese take Pasai in Sumatra; Gunungjati leaves Pasai for Mecca.

Last ship of Magellan expedition around the world sails between Lembata and Pantar islands in Nusa Tenggara.

Sultan Trenggono is remembered as a ruler who did much to spread Islam throughout East and Central Java.

Indonesia About Year 1522

February Portuguese expedition under De Brito arrives on Banda.

May De Brito expedition arrives at Ternate, builds a Portuguese fort.

Banten, still Hindu, asks for Portuguese help against Muslim Demak.

Survivors of Magellan's expedition around the world visit Timor.

Portuguese build fort at Hitu on Ambon.

Only 18 men survived Magellan's expedition, but they returned to Spain with about a ton of cloves, enough to make them wealthy for life.

The arrival of Spanish ships was worrisome to the Portuguese, however, who now had to deal with a European competitor in the heart of the Spice Islands.

Gunungjati returns from Mecca and settles at Demak, marries sister of Sultan Trenggono.

Indonesia About Year 1524

Gunungjati and son Hasanuddin do both covert and overt missionary work in West Java to weaken the kingdom of Pajajaran and its alliance with the Portuguese. Local ruler of Banten, formerly dependent on Pajajaran, converts to Islam and joins Demak's side.

Aceh takes Pasai and Pedir in northern Sumatra.
About this time much of Java began to convert to Islam, including Banten, Mataram and Central Java, and Surabaya.

Indonesia About Year 1525

Hasanuddin, son of Gunungjati, does missionary work in Lampung.

Indonesia About Year 1526

Portuguese build first fort on Timor.

Indonesia About Year 1527

Demak conquers Kediri, Hindu remnant of Majapahit state; Sultans of Demak claims to be successors to Majapahit claims; Sunan Kudus takes part.

Demark takes Tuban.

Demak, with help from Banten, takes Sunda Kelapa from Pajajaran; renames it Jayakerta. (Credit is given to a "Fatahillah"--or after the Portuguese mispronounciation, "Falatehan"-- but this might be a name given to Sunan Gunungjati.) Pajajaran Kingdom is pushed away from the sea.

Kingdom of Palakaran on Madura, based at Arosbaya (now Bangkalan), converts to Islam under Kyai Pratanu.

Expeditions from Spain and Mexico try to drive the Portuguese from Maluku.

Masjid at Kudus, from the early 1500s.

Among the notable figures of this period are the Wali Songo or Nine Walis.

See also Notes on Islam in Modern Indonesia.

Indonesia About Year 1529

Demak conquers Madiun.

Kings of Spain and Portugal agree that Maluku should belong to Portugal, and the Philippines should belong to Spain.

Spain and Portugal had divided the entire world between themselves in 1494. They continued to argue for years over the exact position of the dividing circle. A 1524 conference sponsored by the Pope did not settle matters.

Indonesia About Year 1530

Salahuddin is Sultan of Aceh.

Surabaya and Pasuruan submit to Demak. Demak takes Balambangan, the last Hindu state in easternmost Java.

Gowa begins expanding from Makassar.

Banten extends influence over Lampung.

Indonesia About Year 1536

Major Portuguese attack on Johore.

Antonio da Galvão becomes governor of Portuguese post at Ternate; founds Portuguese post at Ambon.

Portuguese take Sultan Tabariji of Ternate to Goa due to suspicions of anti-Portuguese activity, replace him with his brother.

Indonesia About Year 1537

Acehnese attack on Melaka fails. Salahuddin of Aceh is replaced by Alaudin Riayat Syah I.

Indonesia About Year 1539

Aceh attacks the Bataks to their south.

Indonesia About Year 1540

Portuguese in contact with Gowa.

Sultanate of Butung founded.

Indonesia About Year 1545

Demak conquers Malang.

Gowa builds fort at Ujung Pandang.

Indonesia About Year 1546

Demak invades Balambangan without success.

Trenggono of Demak dies and is succeeded by Prawata. His son-in-law Joko Tingkir expands power from Pajang (near present Sukoharjo).

St. Francis Xavier travels to Morotai, Ambon, and Ternate.

Catholicism (Katolik), one of Indonesia's five religions.

Around this time Portuguese missionaries began to spread the Catholic religion in Indonesia, especially in the east. Today Catholicism is one of Indonesia's recognized religions.

Indonesia About Year 1547

Aceh attacks Melaka.

Indonesia About Year 1550

Portuguese begin building forts on Flores.

Indonesia About Year 1551

Johore attacks Portuguese Melaka with help from Jepara.

Force from Ternate takes control of Sultanate of Jailolo on Halmahera with Portuguese help.

Indonesia About Year 1552

Hasanuddin breaks away from Demak and founds Sultanate of Banten, then takes Lampung for the new Sultanate.

Aceh sends embassy to the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul.

Indonesia About Year 1558

Leiliato leads a force from Ternate to attack the Portuguese at Hitu.

Portuguese build a fortress on Bacan.

Ki Ageng Pemanahan receives Mataram district from Joko Tinggir, ruling at Pajang.

Smallpox epidemic at Ternate.

Indonesia About Year 1559

Portuguese missionaries land at Timor.

Khairun becomes Sultan of Ternate.

Sultan Khairun was friendly to St. Francis Xavier, and was known to be a skillful politician who manipulated the Portuguese into doing what he wanted while claiming to be a Portuguese ally. However, in the end the Portuguese threw him in prison and tried to poison him when he would not yield lands to them.

Indonesia About Year 1560

Portuguese found mission and trading post at Panarukan, in easternmost Java.

Spanish establish a presence at Manado.

Indonesia About Year 1561

Sultan Prawata of Demak passes away.

Portuguese Dominican mission founded on Solor.

Indonesia About Year 1564

Smallpox epidemic at Ambon.

Indonesia About Year 1565

Aceh sacks Johore.

Kutai on Kalimantan converts to Islam.

Indonesia About Year 1566

Portuguese Dominican mission on Solor builds a stone fortress.

Indonesia About Year 1568

Unsuccessful attack by Aceh on Portuguese Melaka.

Indonesia About Year 1569

Portuguese build wooden fortress on Ambon island.

Indonesia About Year 1570

Aceh attacks Johore again, but fails.

Sultan Khairun of Ternate signs a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese, but is found poisoned the next day. Portuguese agents are suspected. Babullah becomes Sultan (until 1583), and vows to drive the Portuguese out of their fortress.

Maulana Yusup becomes Sultan of Banten.

Indonesia About Year 1571

Alaudin Riayet Shah dies, disorder in Aceh until 1607.

Indonesia About Year 1574

Jepara leads unsuccessful attack on Melaka.

Indonesia About Year 1575

Sultan Babullah expels the Portuguese from Ternate. Portuguese build a fort on Tidore instead.

The Portuguese in Ternate were under siege in their fortress for five years, and never received help from Melaka or Goa in India.

Indonesia About Year 1576

Portuguese build fort at the present site of the city of Ambon.

Indonesia About Year 1577

Ki Ageng Pemanahan founds Kota Gede (near today's Yogya).

Sunan Kalijogo as portrayed in an old engraving.

Indonesia About Year 1579

Banten takes the remaining part of Pajajaran, converts it to Islam.

November Sir Francis Drake of England, after raiding Spanish ships and ports in America, arrives at Ternate. Sultan Babullah, who also hated the Spanish, pledges friendship to England.

A Portuguese map from the late 1500s showing the Indies in rough outlines. This information was kept secret by the Spanish and Portuguese until Dutch and English ships started to make trips to the Indies just before 1600.

Some of the subjects of the Pajajaran kingdom who did not convert to Islam left for the high mountains, and became the Badui people of West Java today.

Indonesia About Year 1580

Maulana Muhammad becomes Sultan of Banten.

Portugal falls under Spanish crown; Portuguese colonial enterprises are disregarded.

Drake visits Sulawesi and Java, on the way back to England.

Ternate takes control of Butung.

In the 1500s, the Netherlands were an important business center for Europe, where products from Russia, Scandinavia, Africa, Asia and America were bought and sold. The Netherlands during that time was ruled by Spain. By 1581, the Netherlands had rebelled against the King of Spain and had begun to govern themselves. But since Spain now had control of the Portuguese colonies, the Spanish could prevent Dutch businessmen from easy access to spices from the Indies. This was one reason that Dutch ships began to make their own voyages direct to the Indies in the 1590s.

Indonesia About Year 1581

About this time, Kyai Ageng Pemanahan takes over Mataram district (which had been promised to him by Joko Tingkir, who delayed until Sunan Kalijogo of the Nine Walis pressed him), changes name to Kyai Gedhe Mataram.

Indonesia About Year 1584

Sutawijaya succeeds his father Kyai Gedhe Mataram as local ruler of Mataram, ruling from Kota Gede.

Indonesia About Year 1585

Sultan of Aceh sends a letter to Elizabeth I of England.

Portuguese ship sent to build a fort and mission on Bali is wrecked just offshore.

Indonesia About Year 1587

Sutawijaya defeats Pajang and Joko Tingkir dies; lineage passes definitely to Sutawijaya. Mount Merapi erupts.

Portuguese in Melaka attack Johore.

Portuguese sign a truce with the Sultan of Aceh.

Sir Thomas Cavendish of England visits Java.

Indonesia About Year 1588

Sutawijaya changes name to Senopati; takes Pajang and Demak.

Senopati in a traditional portrait.

From Senopati one can easily trace the lineage of today's Sultan of Yogya and Susuhunan of Surakarta. Traditionally, the line is traced back all the way to the kings of Majapahit.

After this point, the power in central Java was definitely in the Mataram district, around today's Yogyakarta and Surakarta, rather than around Demak.

Indonesia About Year 1590

Original village of Medan founded.

Indonesia About Year 1591

Senopati takes Madiun, then Kediri.

Sir James Lancaster of England reaches Aceh and Penang, but his mission is a failure.

Ternate attacks Portuguese in Ambon.

Indonesia About Year 1593

Ternate lays siege to the Portuguese in Ambon again.

Indonesia About Year 1595

April 2 Dutch expedition under De Houtman leaves for Indies.

Suriansyah makes Banjar on Kalimantan a Sultanate (later Banjarmasin).

Portuguese build fort at Ende, Flores.

Many Dutch sailors had worked on Spanish and Portuguese ships. When De Houtman's Dutch expedition set sail, there were experienced crewmen available to guide them to the Indies.

Indonesia About Year 1596

June 5 De Houtman expedition reaches Sumatra.

June 23 De Houtman expedition reaches Banten. The initial reception is friendly, but after some rough behavior by the Dutch, the Sultan of Banten, along with the Portuguese stationed in Banten, shell the Dutch ships.

The De Houtman expedition continues along north coast of Java. A ship is lost to pirates. More bad behavior leads to misunderstandings and violence on Madura: a prince of Madura is killed, several Dutch sailors are arrested and taken prisoner, De Houtman has to ransom them for release.

Abul Mufakir becomes Sultan of Banten.

Three Chinese merchants at Banten, late 1500s.

Indonesia About Year 1597

Some members of De Houtman expedition settle on Bali and refuse to leave.

A Portuguese fleet under Lourenzo de Brito decides, contrary to instructions, to seek retribution from the Sultan of Banten for doing business with Dutch traders. The fleet is defeated by Banten and forced to retreat.

Remnants of the De Houtman expedition (89 of an original 248 sailors) return to Holland with spices.

Senopati attacks Banten, but is driven back.

Title page from the published account of the de Houtman expedition. The Spanish and Portuguese had maintained secrecy about the results of their explorations. The Dutch broke their monopoly on information.

Indonesia About Year 1598

22 Dutch ships in five expeditions set out for the east. The Netherlands States-General suggests that competing companies should merge. De Houtman's second expedition includes John Davis, an English spy. Van Noort sets off to sail around the southern tip of America to the Indies.

Senopati attacks the western territories of Surabaya.

The De Houtman voyage was actually not profitable, (partly due to de Houtman's own poor judgment and general recklessness) but the businessmen of the Netherlands could see the future potential in the spice trade, and dozens of new voyages were planned to follow its path. This period of is sometimes called the "wilde vaart".

Indonesia About Year 1599

Dutch expedition under Van Neck reaches Maluku, begins successful trading on Banda, Ambon and Ternate.

June De Houtman is killed in conflict with Sultan of Aceh.

Dutch churches begin calls for missionary work in the Indies.

Indonesia About Year 1600

Van Noort expedition attacks Spanish at Guam.

Portuguese establish trading post at Jepara.

Raja of Minangkabau converts to Islam.

September Dutch Admiral Van den Haghen makes an alliance with the Hitu against the Portuguese in Ambon.

December 31 Elizabeth I of England charters East India Company.














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