Monday, March 23, 2009

Indonesia

Flagcounter.com: IndonesiaIndonesia Population: 237,512,352

Background

The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006.

Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.

  • Archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited);
  • straddles equator;
  • strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean.
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Geographic coordinates : 5 00 S, 120 00 E.
Area : total: 1,919,440 sq km.
land : 1,826,440 sq km.
water : 93,000 sq km.
Size comparison : slightly less than three times the size of Texas.
Land Boundaries : total: 2,830 km.

Border countries : Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline : 54,716 km

Maritime claims : measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


Territorial sea: 12 nm

Exclusive economic zone : 200 nm

Climate : tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain : mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes : lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

Highest point : Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources : petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver.

Land use : arable land: 11.03%

Permanent crops : 7.04%

other : 81.93% (2005)

Irrigated land : 45,000 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards : occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes,
volcanoes, forest fires.

Current Environment Issues : deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes,
sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

International Environment Agreements : party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

People

Population : 237,512,352 (July 2008 est.)

Age structure : 0-14 years: 28.4% (male 34,343,198/female 33,175,135)

15-64 years : 65.7% (male 78,330,830/female 77,812,339)

65 years and over : 5.8% (male 6,151,305/female 7,699,548) (2008 est.)


Median age : total: 27.2 years

male : 26.7 years

female : 27.7 years (2008 est.)

Population growth rate : 1.175% (2008 est.)

Birth rate : 19.24 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Death rate : 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Net migration rate : -1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female

Under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years : 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over : 0.8 male(s)/female

Total population : 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate : total: 31.04 deaths/1,000 live births

male : 36.14 deaths/1,000 live births

female : 25.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

Life expectancy at birth : total population: 70.46 years

male : 67.98 years

female : 73.07 years (2008 est.)

Total fertility rate : 2.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate : 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS : 110,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths : 2,400 (2003 est.)

Nationality : noun : Indonesian(s)

adjective : Indonesian

Ethnic groups : Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census).

Religions : Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other
or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Languages : Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch,
local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese).

Literacy : definition : age 15 and over can read and write

total population : 90.4%

male : 94%

female : 86.8% (2004 est.)

Government

Country name : conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form : Indonesia

local long form : Republik Indonesia

local short form : Indonesia

former : Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

Government type : republic

Capital : name: Jakarta

geographic coordinates : 6 10 S, 106 49 E

time difference : UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note : Indonesia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions : 30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat (Irian Jaya Barat), Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*.

note : following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence : 17 August 1945 (declared)

note : recognized by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949; in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945.

National holiday : Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution : August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002.

Legal system : based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.

Suffrage : 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch : chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government.

Head of government : President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004).

cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president

elections : president and vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held on 8 July 2009).

election results : Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%.

Legislative branch : House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching president and in amending constitution; consists of members of DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy.

elections : last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held on 9 April 2009)

election results : percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50.

note : because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties.

Judicial branch : Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006.

Political parties and leaders : Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI].

Political pressure groups and leaders : Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Religion and Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental).

International organization participation : ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, nIFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO.

Diplomatic representation in the US : chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat

chancery : 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone : [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX : [1] (202) 775-5365

consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US : chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME.

embassy : Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address : Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520

telephone : [62] (21) 3435-9000

FAX : [62] (21) 3435-9922

consulate(s) general : Surabaya

Economy

Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO, but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has been declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and improved capital market supervision. Indonesia's new investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and
unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak, and despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis relieved inflation but also brought a host of new problems: a rout in the stock market, a difficult environment for bond issuance, lower prices for Indonesia's
commodities exports, and prospects for lower growth overall.

GDP (purchasing power parity) : $932.1 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate) : $496.8 billion (2008 est.)

GDP - real growth rate : 5.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP) : $3,900 (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector : agriculture: 13.5%

industry : 45.6%

services : 40.8% (2008 est.)

Labor force : 112 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation : agriculture: 42.1%

industry : 18.6%

services : 39.3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate : 8.2% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line : 17.8% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share : lowest 10%: 3.6% highest 10% : 28.5% (2002)

Distribution of family income - Gini index : 39.4 (2005)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) : 10.5% (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed) : 25.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Budget: revenues : $90.17 billion

expenditures : $96.87 billion (2008 est.)

Public deb t: 30.1% of GDP (2008 est.)

Agriculture - products :

Industries : petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourisml

Industrial production growth rate :

Electricity - production : 125.7 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - consumption : 110.7 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - exports : 0 kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports : 0 kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production : 1.044 million bbl/day (2007 est.)

Oil - consumption : 1.219 million bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - exports : 470,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - imports : 500,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - proved reserves : 4.37 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Natural gas - production : 56 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - consumption : 23.4 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - exports : 32.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - imports : 0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves : 2.659 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Current account balance : $2.485 billion (2008 est.)

Exports : $141 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities : oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners : Japan 20.7%, US 10.2%, Singapore 9.2%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.6%, Malaysia 4.5%, India 4.3% (2007)

Imports : $114.3 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities : machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs.

Imports - partners : Singapore 13.2%, China 11.5%, Japan 8.8%, Malaysia 8.6%, US 6.4%, Thailand 5.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, South Korea 4.3%, Australia 4% (2007)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : $51.74 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external : $143.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home : $63.46 billion (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad : $4.277 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares : $211.7 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency (code) : Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Exchange rates : Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,558.1 (2008 est.), 9,056 (2007 est.), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)

Fiscal year : calendar year

Communications

Telephones in use : 17.828 million (2007)

Cellular Phones in use : 81.835 million (2007)

Telephone system : general assessment: domestic service fair, international service
good.

domestic : interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly.

international : country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean).

Radio broadcast stations : AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Television broadcast stations : 54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks;
each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)

Internet country code : .id

Internet hosts : 753,200 (2008)

Internet users : 13 million (2007)

Transportation

Airports : 652 (2007)

Airports (paved runways) : total: 158

over 3,047 m : 4

2,438 to 3,047 m : 15

1,524 to 2,437 m : 51

914 to 1,523 m : 49

under 914 m : 39 (2007)

Airports (unpaved runways) : total: 494

1,524 to 2,437 m : 5

914 to 1,523 m : 27

under 914 m : 462 (2007)

Heliports : 17 (2007)

Pipelines : condensate 963 km; condensate/gas 81 km; gas 9,003 km; oil 7,471 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 1,365 km (2007).

Railways : total: 6,458 km

narrow gauge : 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2006).

Roadways : total: 391,009 km

paved : 216,714 km

unpaved : 174,295 km (2005)

Waterways : 21,579 km (2008)

Merchant marine : total: 971

by type: bulk carrier 54, cargo 514, chemical tanker 35, container 80, liquefied gas 7, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4.

Foreign-owned : 43 (China 2, France 1, Germany 1, Japan 6, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 27, Taiwan 2, UAE 2).

Registered in other countries : 114 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 2, Mongolia 1, Panama 31, Singapore 66, unknown 2) (2008)

Ports and terminals : Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Military

Military branches : Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2008).

Military service age and obligation : 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008).

Manpower available for military service : males age 16-49: 63,800,825

females age 16-49 : 61,729,717 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service : males age 16-49: 52,367,788

females age 16-49: 52,129,123 (2008 est.)

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