1. The History
a. Kutai Martadipura
Kutai, according to the oldest written data, constituted the oldest kingdom in
Using Pallawa letters and Sanskrit language, the Yupa inscription inscribed the story of a Kutai Martadipura King named Mulawarman. He was son of Aswawarman King and grandson of Maharaja (king of the king) Kudungga. Kutai stories are understood mostly from interpretation of written information carved on the inscriptions and Salasilah Kutai on which most archeologists relied their knowledge. This lack of historical legacies leads to the minimum information on the
b. Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura
Generally, the archeological and historical studies on Kutai are circumscribed. It is so due to most of historical sites in which Kutai inheritance was found are shattered by excessive mining activities. However, meager amount of data on Kutai Kartanegara especially during the 13th century upward can be obtained through those inscriptions. In the 13th century, the Kutai kingdom was established and Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti (1300-1325 C.E) was installed as the first King. The central Kingdom was situated in Tepian Batu or Kutai Lama.
In the 16th century, Kutai Kartanegara King named Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa successfully defeated
The change of king title from Raja (king) to Sultan occurred in the 17th century when Islam came to the kingdom. At the time, Islam was widely accepted by most of Kutai people and officially legitimated as the Kingdom religion. Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris (1735-1778 C.E) was the first sultan who used Islamic name.
During his period, Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris and his followers made a trip to Wajo area for supporting his son in-law Sultan Wajo Lamaddukelleng to fight against VOC (the Dutch East India Company). To replace the king position, Dewan Perwalian (trusteeship council) was formed. Following the death of Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris In 1739 C.E who fell in a Wajo battle, internal conflict which was marked by struggle over the Kutai kingship among his descendants gradually appeared. Aji Kado, officially was not entitled to the Kutai Kingship, seized the throne of the kingdom and later on became the legal king of Kutai titled Sultan Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin. In attempt to avoid prolonged conflict, the young prince Aji Imbut, son of Aji Muhammad, was run away by remaining royalties to Wajo.
Aji imbut, the official heir apparent to Kutai throne, who grew into an adult in Wajo eventually returned to Kutai. Bugis society and kingdom officials who were still loyal to Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris installed Aji Imbut as the Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara titled Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin. The event of coronation which was held in Mangkujenang (Samarinda Seberang) triggered the conflict between the two Kings: Aji Kado and Aji Imbut.
Using embargo as a main war strategy, Aji Imbut successfully regained the kingship of Kutai and became the Kutai King with the previous title Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin. During the war, Aji Imbut was benefited from pirates` support for blockading Pemarangan, the capital of Kutai Kartanegara. Feeling exhorted by Aji Imbut attack, Aji kado asked VOC for military support to protect Kutai territory. However, VOC denied the request. Aji Kado then was sentenced to death and buried in
The first step taken by Aji Imbut after being Kuta King was moving the capital of Kingdom from Pemarangan to Tepian Pandan in September 28, 1782 C.E. The moving was based on two important considerations: to erase bad memory regarding past conflict over kingship, and to mark the end of Aji Kado period. Since the King ruled the Kingdom from Tepian Pandan, the name of Capital was changed into Tangga Arung meaning King House. In 1883 C.E, Aji Imbut was replaced by Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin. Kutai people gradually simplified the name of kingdom capital and merged the two words Tangga Arung to become Tenggarong. This name, until now, becomes the popularly used name.
c. European Colonialism Era
Kutai rapport with European people was commenced in 1844 C.E. by the coming of two British commercial ships under supervisor of James Erskine Murray. They visited Kutai land for establishing commercial posts and demanding privilege to operate steamers in Mahakam waters. Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin refuted to meet all the requests and gave permission for
News on the British shellacking in the battle, which was heard by British authorities, exploded their anger and motivated them to take revenge on
In October 11, 1844 C.E, Sultan A.M. Salehuddin was forced by the Dutch to sign an agreement stating his acknowledging and submission to the authority of the Dutch which was represented by delegation situated in
In 1888 C.E, a Dutch engineer named J.H. Menten opened coal mining first in Batu Panggal and exploitated oil in Kutai region. Profits from this natural resources exploitation went to Sultan Sulaiman
In 1942 C.E, when Japanese forces occupied the Kutai terrirories, Sultan Sulaiman was subject unto
The sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara that holded status of Swapraja region, along with other sultanates such as Bulungan, Sambaliung, Gunung Tabur and Pasir united in
2. The Kings of the Kingdom
So far, archeologists are not able to reveal the comprehensive data on Kutai Kings in the era of Kutai Martadipura. However, it is believed that the founder of the Kingdom was Aswawarman. As stated in Yupa inscriptions, Aswawarman was called as Dewa Ansuman/Dewa Matahari (Deity of Sun) and perceived as Wangsakerta, the founder of family king. The statement inscribed in the Yupa shows that Aswawarman was a king who embraced Hindu as his religion and the founder of dynasty/Kutai king family. Maharaja Kudungga was the ruler of Kutai Martadipura before Aswawarman.
Unlike Kutai Martadipura, the kings of Kutai Kartanegara in the 13th century can be traced completely. Below are the kings who had ever ruled the
1. Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti (1300-1325 C.E)
2. Aji Batara Agung Paduka Nira (1325-1360 C.E)
3. Aji Maharaja Sultan (1360-1420 C.E)
4. Aji Raja Mandarsyah (1420-1475 C.E)
5. Aji Pangeran Tumenggung Bayabaya (1475-1545 C.E)
6. Aji Raja Mahkota Mulia Alam (1545-1610 C.E)
7. Aji Dilanggar (1610-1635 C.E)
8. Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa ing Martapura (1635-1650 C.E)
9. Aji Pangeran Dipati Agung ing Martapura (1650-1665 C.E)
10. Aji Pangeran Dipati Maja Kusuma ing Martapura (1665-1686 C.E)
11. Aji Ragi gelar Ratu Agung (1686-1700 C.E)
12. Aji Pangeran Dipati Tua (1700-1730 C.E)
13. Aji Pangeran Anum Panji Mendapa ing Martapura (1730-1732 C.E)
14. Aji Muhammad Idris (1732-1778 C.E)
15. Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin (1778-1780 C.E)
16. Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin (1780-1816 C.E)
17. Aji Muhammad Salehuddin (1816-1845 C.E)
18. Aji Muhammad Sulaiman (1850-1899 C.E)
19. Aji Muhammad Alimuddin (1899-1910 C.E)
20. Aji Muhammad Parikesit (1920-1960 C.E)
21. H. Aji Muhammad Salehuddin II (1999-now)
3. The Kingdom Period
The period of
5. The Kingdom Structure
Archeological data that provides detailed information on the structure of
6. The Socio-Cultural life
The only reliable sources providing the information and knowledge on socio cultural life of Kutai people are seven Yupa inscriptions, and manuscript of Salasilah Kutai. Therefore, the socio cultural life related-data is very minimum
a. Social Life
The Yupa inscription depicted social life in which harmoniuos relation of Mulawarman King with Brahmana people established. King Mulawarman presented lot of golds and gave alms, amounted 20.000 cows, to Brahmana people in their holy land called Waprakeswara. The holy land was a place at which Brahmana people worship their deity of `Syiwa`. This place was called Baprakewara in
Where those gold and cows came from were unknown. If it is assumed that those things were gotten from outside Kutai, it means that the Kingdom had formed trade links with other kingdoms.
b. Cultural Life
It can be said that the cultural life of Kutai can be categorized as the advanced culture. This can be seen from ceremony of Vratyastoma (blessing for those who embrace the Hindu) performed in the Kingdom. The ceremony was first conducted in the period of Aswawarman. According to some experts, this sacred ceremony is usually leaded by Brahmana (Hindu Priest) coming from
In addition, there are some archeological evidences found in
- Prasetyo Eko Prihananto, Sejarah Kita Berawal Dari Kutai, dalam Kompas 3 November 2004.